Glaucoma treatment in Santacruz, Mumbai
What is Glaucoma?
Glaucoma is an eye condition that damages the optic nerves by causing a significant rise in the intraocular pressure (IOP) within the eye.
Aqueous Humour is a fluid that nourishes the inner tissues of the eye. It is produced and drained out of the eye imposing certain pressure known as the intraocular pressure (IOP) through a small space called the anterior chamber. However, if the draining flow of this fluid slows down, and it starts building up within the chamber, the intraocular pressure increases along with it. This rising pressure starts straining the optic nerves hindering their functionalities, and ultimately leading to complete vision loss.
Glaucoma is a progressive disorder that is painless, symptomless and irreversible. In fact, more than half of the patients who suffer from glaucoma do not realize its presence until their vision has degraded considerably. Hence, it is often phrased as the ‘sneak thief of sight’.
What Are the Causes of Glaucoma?
Causes of Glaucoma are studied under two categories:
When there are signs of Glaucoma development, but no solid causes are detected, it is termed as a primary Glaucoma with unknown causes.
When the cause of Glaucoma development is detected, it is termed as a secondary Glaucoma. The most commonly identified causes include:
- Age: as the body gets old, it gets more vulnerable to disorders like glaucoma.
- Genetic Background: it was found that people who are East Asians, African Americans, and those of Hispanic descent have a higher risk of developing glaucoma.
- Corticosteroids: Patients on long-term corticosteroids have a raised risk of developing several different conditions, including glaucoma.
- Health Conditions: diseases like diabetes or hypothyroidism are known to cause bodily changes that may lead to disorders like glaucoma.
- Traumatic injuries caused by accidents.
- Previous eye surgery.
- Myopia (nearsightedness).
What are the Types of Glaucoma?
This is an escalating type of glaucoma attack that develops in a short period due to a sudden rise in IOP. The person who develops this type of glaucoma experiences sudden eye pain and a rapid loss in eyesight.
However, the symptoms of pain and discomfort prove helpful in detecting the problem before the person loses all of his vision. This way, prompt treatment can be facilitated to prevent permanent damage to the optic nerves.
This type of glaucomas develops gradually over time, without any signs or symptoms. A person suffering from chronic glaucoma may not even notice the minute loss of vision until it becomes significant.
This glaucoma condition is often detected when it’s too late, and it has led to the total loss of vision in a considerable number of cases.
Pigmentary glaucoma is a type of open-angle glaucoma that typically develops when the pigment cells, which arise from the iris, get dispersed inside the eye. If these cells build up in the channels that drain the fluid from the eye, it causes the IOP to rise and damage internal nerves.
What are the Symptoms Of Glaucoma?
Although glaucoma doesn’t develop any measurable or direct symptoms, both types of glaucoma might show the following signs:
- Signs of primary open-angle Glaucoma:
- Gradual dimness in peripheral vision in both eyes.
- In advanced stages, the patient may experience tunnelled vision.
- Signs of closed-angle Glaucoma:
- Severe and persistent Eye pain.
- Blurred vision.
- Nausea and sometimes vomiting, along with eye pain.
- Halo glows around bright lights.
- Redness in eyes
- Poor vision in dimly lit places or during the night.
What are the treatments for Glaucoma?
As the damage caused by glaucoma is irreparable, the goal of all treatments is to prevent further damage and maintain the current condition of the eye.
In most cases of glaucoma, eye drops are an initial step for treatment which are prescribed to be used daily at a particular frequency.
The time and technique of taking the dosage are extremely important to gain optimal results and hence must be discussed thoroughly with the doctor.
When used regularly as prescribed, these drops can control the IOP either by interrupting the formation of aqueous fluid or by increasing the flow through the drainage channels.
The most common types of eye drops that are used for glaucoma treatment include:
- Prostaglandin analogues
- Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors
- Cholinergic agents
They are usually prescribed along with the eye drops when the IOP is too high to treat solely with eye drops. They are occasionally known to cause tingling of fingers and toes, bowel irregularities, and in the very long term, kidney stones.
There are a variety of invasive techniques for stopping the nerve damage caused by glaucoma. They are usually only recommended when the eye drops don’t work. Their primary goal is to reduce the IOP in the eye.
This technique is used to unblock clogged drainage canals that are building up the fluid within the eye.
It is performed with a slit lamp equipped with an argon laser. The laser is used to open up the trabecular meshwork in the eye through which the fluid drains out.
Viscocanalostomy is an effective procedure in lowering intraocular pressure (IOP) in open-angle glaucomatous eyes.
It is a non-penetrating procedure which is performed by making changes in the morphology of the trabecular meshwork in the eye and opening up the drainage channels for the fluid.
This surgery is performed for a patient with secondary glaucoma and sometimes for children too.
During this procedure, a small silicone tube is inserted into the eye to access the fluid in the anterior chamber.
The fluid is carefully drained out through this tube to reduce the IOP.
In this technique, a small hole is made in the eyewall (sclera), and a trap-door is installed through the incision such that the fluid drains out gradually.
The fluid drains to a small reservoir or a bleb located underneath the conjunctiva of the eyelid, where it is absorbed.
Iridotomy is performed for treating acute angle-closure glaucoma attacks as a medical emergency.
First, some pressure-reducing medications are administered into the eye.
Then, a laser procedure is performed to create a tiny hole in the iris, allowing fluids to pass into the trabecular meshwork (the drainage system of the eye).
Frequently Asked Questions:
Glaucoma has been observed to develop mostly in people who:
- Have a family history of glaucoma
- Are over 45 years of age
- Have Near-sightedness (myopia)
- Have suffered any injury to their eyes
- Have other ocular diseases such as cataract or tumours
- Are consuming medications like corticosteroids for long term
The only known way to detect the development of glaucoma in early stages is Tonometry, where the IOP of the eyes is measured, and it is performed during a regular eye checkup. However, you’ll have to follow regular eye checkups so any changes in your IOP or tension in your eyes can be detected.
Other tests which are performed for glaucoma include:
- Gonioscopy – Inspection of the drainage angle of the eye
- Ophthalmoscopy – Evaluation of optic nerve damage
- Perimetry – testing the visual field of each eye
Ocular hypertension is another term for high IOP where the eye pressure is higher than usual but does not cause optic nerve damage and vision loss. However, it can further lead to glaucoma if not treated soon.
Surgeons who provide glaucoma treatment in Santacruz, Mumbai will tell you that currently there are no known ways to prevent this disorder other than maintaining a healthy lifestyle as a precaution.
It is crucial that you look for an experienced and trusted glaucoma specialist to have your glaucoma surgery in Santacruz, Mumbai. For a lot of patients, Clear Vision Eye Centre is one such trustworthy option when it comes to getting an effective and affordable glaucoma treatment in Santacruz, Mumbai.